The Instruction of Meta-Cognitive Listening Strategies and Its Impact on Listening Performance of High and Low-Test-Anxious Intermediate Learners



Allameh Tabataba’i University


Although decisions or inferences we make based on test
scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing sit-
uations, there is just little research which has been undertaken on the
effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., In’nami, 2006).
The effect of listening strategies on listening performance is also unde-
niable (Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, considering these two issues is the in-
tention of the present study. This study not only investigates the effect
of one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely test anxiety
on listening test performance, but also attempts to find the relation-
ship between instruction of listening strategies and test performance.
At last, it focuses on meta-cognitive listening strategies (Vandergrift,
1997) instruction and its impact on test-anxiety. This study was con-
ducted with 98 students who were selected from Aryanpour Institute in
Tehran. After the pre-test, which was also considered as a proficiency
test, the participants were instructed for 4 hours. The post-test was
administered and the analysis of data revealed that there is a signifi-
cant relationship between test anxiety and listening performance among
Iranian EFL intermediate learners and also there is a significant rela-
tionship between meta-cognitive listening strategies and listening profi-
ciency among Iranian EFL intermediate learners but meta-cognitive lis-
tening strategies have no differential effect on high- and low-test-anxious
Iranian EFL intermediate learners. It is to say that both groups of high-
and low-test-anxious learners benefit the same from meta-cognitive lis-
tening strategies instruction. These findings emphasize the importance
of lowering test anxiety in exam sessions as well as the importance of
instructing meta-cognitive listening strategies in EFL classes.